Toss the cucumbers with the salt in a large colander; drain in the sink for 30 minutes. The salt will pull the moisture from the cucumbers. Rinse the cucumbers with cold water; drain again and pat dry with absorbent paper towels, gently pressing to remove as much extra moisture as possible.
In a large mixing bowl, whisk together the sugar and vinegar until the sugar has dissolved. Add the cucumbers, peppers, garlic, and cilantro; toss to combine and coat. Divide salad among serving plates and sprinkle with chopped peanuts. Serve.