Place all of the paste ingredients in a food processor or blender and puree until it reaches a paste consistency, stopping to scrape down the sides of the bowl or pitcher as needed. Set aside.
To make the Tofu Vindaloo:
Add the oil to a large saucepan over medium-high heat. When hot, add the tofu and cook for about 10 minutes, flipping every 2 minutes or so, until it's lightly browned.
Push the tofu out to the sides of the of the saucepan, making a space in the center. Add the vindaloo paste to the center and heat for 1 minute, until fragrant. Add the broth, tomato paste, cider vinegar and brown sugar. Stir gently to combine, then bring to a simmer and add the cauliflower, pepper and green beans.
Reduce heat to low and simmer, uncovered, for 12-15 minutes or until veggies are tender, stirring occasionally. Add up to ½ cup of water during cooking if sauce becomes too thick.
Divide onto plates and serve with rice or naan.
Vindaloo is one of the spicier Indian dishes. This version is a medium-hot version. If you like super-spicy vindaloo, feel free to up the chili paste. If you're not into spicy, or aren't sure, cut down on the chili paste. You can always add a bit more at the end if it turns out too mild.